Establishing the Royal Cubit Length

For centuries, Egyptologists have attempted to establish
an official length for the Royal cubit (Rc). Many samples of this ancient
measure have been recovered from various archeological sites and are presently
on full display in several museums throughout the world and it is these samples
that present the problem…they all vary in length!

Although the difference is minute the question
remains…what was the standard of measure implemented by the ancients for
constructing the monuments at Giza?

It may appear to be an insignificant issue, but once
a measure can be confirmed as absolute then accurate scaling of all measures on
site may direct us toward greater understanding and reasoning for the ancient’s
structural and architectural designs.

Numerous sites indicate they were constructed
specifically for astronomical study throughout the seasons. We have also
learned and understand that ratios of length were fashioned into the stonework
of other sites. Once the principle reasons for these designs are understood
then it is realized that the measures are actually basic in nature…most
important…they were limited in their use !

It was demonstrated in Topic 3 how the three pyramids form a
191.5 degrees angle. This implies the builders having gained full understanding
of planet motion. By the greatest of coincidence, the most hospitable planet
closest to Earth is Mars and it orbits 191.4 degrees average in one Earth
year…the identical angle as indicated at Giza (Ill. 1).

Illustration 1. Mars orbits 191.4 degrees average in one Earth
year. The three Giza pyramids are set out and demonstrate the identical angle.

Four thousand years had passed before the discovery
of a simple mathematical fact relating to the center pyramid of Khafre (P2) and
Petrie confirmed the measure true.

The remaining granite casing stones surrounding the
base of P2 have a smooth angular face and are carved on a precise 4:3 ratio, or
the equivalent of the 3-4-5 right-angle triangle. This angle has prompted many
to believe that the ancients may have understood the right-angle theory before
the pyramids were constructed, but it must be understood that a single and
basic ratio cannot be used to substantiate a theory. Scholars realize that a
3-4-5 ratio can also be illustrated on a grid without any knowledge of the
right-angle formula. The angle selected may have been for geometric symmetry,
architectural splendor, or convenient for construction practicality (Ill. 2).

Illustration 2. The granite casing stones at the base of Khafre’s
pyramid demonstrate the 3-4-5 right-angle triangle, a geometric format
illustrated on a simple grid.

Modern studies of the Giza site have recently
promoted the use of the King’s Chamber in Khufu’s pyramid (P1) as a reference
measure. The chamber’s dimensions are established as 20.0 Rc long by 10.0 Rc
wide. Using the measures recorded by F. W. Petrie then the average/mean length
of the Royal cubit is 20.63 inches or 52.40 cm.

Applying this information to the three large
pyramids on site then the individual base measures calculate as follows:

P1 (Khufu)…440.00 Rc

P2 (Khafre)…410.80 Rc

P3 (Menkaure)…201.25 Rc

The first stage is now
established…implementing a measure to be used as a possible standard…the King’s
Chamber.

The second segment of this design analysis
is the compiling of information from the three pyramid bases and it is here
where a second phenomenal discovery is made:

The total length of the three pyramid sides
is equal to (440.00 + 410.80 + 201.25) = 1052.05
Rc.

Presented above was the 191.5 angle separation
of the three pyramids, it is factual and corresponds to the orbital distance
Mars travels in one Earth year. What we also know of these two planets is their
individual orbital period: Earth orbits the Sun in 365.26 days compared to Mars of 686.98 days. The total days for both planets to
orbit the Sun is (365.26 + 686.98) = 1052.24
days and this numerical value equals the total length of the three pyramids
(Ill. 3) !

Illustration 3. The numerical sum of the
three large pyramid widths in Royal cubits is equal to the sum of the orbital
periods of Earth and Mars.

For the first time we begin to realize
that more than simple geometry and mathematics is involved at Giza. The
designers demonstrated their gained knowledge using numerical values of Royal
cubits to represent Earth days; it enabled them to confirm their understanding
of Mars and Earth orbiting the Sun…planet motion !

There is no evidence indicating
any mathematical ratio between the three large pyramids, are we being prompted
to question why the designers built P2 on a simplified 3-4-5 right-angle
triangle with a base measure of 410.8 Rc? Why did they not build a base of even
length e.g. 400, 405, or 410 Rc?
Nothing is to be overlooked.

From questioning these small
discrepancies in measure we discover another piece of information locked within
this monument.

Using the same technique, the
formed 3-4-5 right-angle triangle measures of P2 are compared to Earth days.

Petrie’s base measure of P2 converts to 410.8 Rc forming two side of 342.34 Rc each, therefore the
perimeter of the formed triangle is (2 x 342.34 + 410.8) Rc = 1095.48 Rc…a mathematical fact.

By calculation, this pyramid forms a triangle of perimeter 1095.48 Rc…and we know that a triangle
has three sides. Therefore the average length of each side is (1095.48/3) or 365.16 Rc…the number of days to an
Earth year !

The perimeter of P2 in Royal
cubits is numerically equal to three Earth years of 365.256 days (Ill. 4) !!

Illustration 4. The total numerical value of
the perimeter is equal to the days required for Earth to orbit the Sun three
times (1095.77 days).

To confirm:

If we assume the designers
understanding the exact length of an Earth year being 365.26 days then
calculating in reverse…

Three complete orbits of Earth
equaling 1095.78 days set into a 3-4-5 triangle having a base measured length
of 8475 inches (average length by Petrie) will produce a Royal cubit base
length equaling 8475/(1095.78 x 6/16) = **20.63** inches.

From Petrie:

“….Probably
the base of the chamber was the part most carefully adjusted and set out; and
hence the original cubit used can be most accurately recovered from that part. The
four sides there yield a mean value of **20.632 **this is certainly the best
determination of the cubit that we can hope for from the Great Pyramid…”

* *

Petrie’s value of 20.632 +/- 0.004
inches extracted from the King’s Chamber compared to the 20.63 from a simple
calculation using Earth days confirms his measure correct and verifies the
designers understanding the length of one Earth year.

The measures are most precise
and impressive, but we are not to stop here. There are other significant
dimensions indicating a slight discrepancy…a discrepancy that Petrie was
obviously eager to overlook.

A journey to the Queen’s Chamber and
additional measures from Petrie:

The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh…
Chapter 9, section 41, pg. 67

“…The
size of the chamber (after allowing suitably in each part for the incrustation
of salt) is on an average 205.85 wide, and

226.47
long, 184.47 high on N. and S. walls…”

Using
the calculated 20.63 inch standard from the King’s Chamber, then the Queen’s
Chamber would measure 9.98 x 10.98 x 8.94 Rc and this chamber is situated forty
cubits below the King’s Chamber…it was constructed first !

Since
it was built first then it is obvious that the intended size of the Queen’s
Chamber was 10.00 x 11.00 x 9.00 Rc…indicating a smaller cubit length of **20.59**
inches. It now appears that a transition of the cubit measure was made between
the times of constructing the two chambers.

The
Queen’s Chamber was accessible while building the King’s Chamber…it always
provided an accurate standard or reference for the Royal cubit. Leaving us with
an additional issue to resolve. If the standard was available why did the
builders elect to alter the cubit length…and was it intentional?

From
illustration 4 it was shown how the total length of the triangle formed by P2
equals the number of days in three Earth years…it also displays each side
measures 342.34 Rc. The
sum of these two sides equals 684.68 and it is realized that Mars orbits the
Sun in 686.98 days…the difference in value is 2.30 days. Were the designers
attempting to use P2 to indicate the orbital period of Earth and that of
Mars? It is impossible to accomplish
unless there is a slight change…adjust the Royal cubit to a shorter length !

Using
the cubit measure from the Queen’s Chamber as a reference then the calculated
lengths for both sides of P2 equal (1/2 x 8475 x 5/3)/20.59 = 343 Rc; the total length for both sides now equals
686 Rc…and the error reduced to ½ Rc on each side, or a total error of one
day/Rc (Ill. 5).

Illustration
5. Using the Queen’s Chamber as a
standard, the two sides of P2 measure 686.00 Rc representing one orbit of Mars
(686.98 days).

To
confirm:

Assume the designers understanding the orbital
period of Mars equaling 686.98 days then calculating in reverse…

One orbit of Mars equaling 686.98 days set
into a 3-4-5 triangle having a base measured length of 8475 inches (average
length by Petrie) will produce a Royal cubit base length equaling (8475 x
5/3)/686.98 = **20.56** inches…

The Queen’s Chamber indicates an average
length of 20.59 inches…an error of 0.03 inches.

The designers deliberately used two separate
measures for the Royal cubit within the chambers of Khufu (P1). They had full
intentions of building Khafre’s pyramid (P2) on a 3-4-5 right-angle triangle to
express the two specific orbital characteristics for the planets: Earth and
Mars.

The ancients concealed the pyramid passages
from view hoping for the inquisitive to discover their existence. Having traveled
their course over time they have directing us to the chambers above and now we
are at an age capable of accepting the next challenge.

There is much to uncover…but not a stone to
be removed. We are to read…with all our senses…the messages left within.

References:

The
Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh…..1882……………Sir W. M. Flinders Petrie

“1o6”
The Dawn of Man………………………….1999 sb……….C. Ross

Larousse
Astronomy………………………..….1987……………Philippe de la Cotardiere

Copyright
459689 1997…C. Ross “1o6” The Dawn of
Man

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