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Planets and Time



The Measure:

The Royal cubit:











Since the first intrusion into the Great Pyramid, humankind has attempted to rationalize the reason or purpose for the mysterious and intriguing designed passages and chambers within the structure. At the time of construction the Giza pyramid complex was perhaps the greatest engineering challenge ever perceived on this planet. The total stones required for construction are numbered in the tens of millions, requiring a total time frame of approximately 100 years, or the passing of three Egyptian kings before the site was finally declared complete. It is proposed by most Egyptologists that the three ruling kings of the time were entombed within their personal sarcophagus, one sealed in each main chamber of the three largest structures on site. Unfortunately there is no supporting evidence to prove the theory valid…no bodily remains of this pyramid-building era have ever been discovered within any pyramid chambers on site. Many theories have been put forward and they too have their individual drawback.

If a theory cannot stand alone then it is no more than a concept, and a concept is no more than an idea or story at best. The major “test” for any theory is the scrutinizing to the very limit of known knowledge…no external input should diminish the value of its content…everything must fit without deviation.

Although these structures may have some religious bearing, the location with respect to each other indicates that a “grand” plan/design was in the making. The time has come for us to determine why these kings systematically ordered their own citizens and peoples of conquered nations to erect three monuments of such massive magnitude.

History indicates that many past civilizations erected megalithic monuments to be used for astronomical observations, a means to follow the paths of their wandering gods in the heavens. Is it possible that the ancient pyramid builders actually constructed this site in honor of their gods? Were the pyramid designer(s) expressing their full understanding of these cosmic warriors traversing the evening skies? Were the pyramids built to honor the visible planets…not the kings and their future heirs to the throne?

Once stated by the renowned Egyptologist: Dr. Zahi Hawass, “…I believe there is a secret locked within…one day…we may begin to understand what that secret is…”

He also explained that any theory relating to Giza and indicating mathematical relationships should be expressed by ratios or the implementation of the Royal cubit, the measure used by the builders of the Giza site.



The measure:

Those who oppose the Egyptologist’s “king’s-burial-tomb” theory are classified as “alternate” theorists and there are many throughout the world, including this writer. However, the main belief/difference that separates this individual from the opposing Egyptologists, archeologists, and astronomers is one simple statement: “The ancient Egyptian pyramid builders were fully aware that planets orbited the Sun”. I believe that the individuals responsible for the Giza project possessed full knowledge of planetary motion!

From the many years that I have devoted my time to the study of the Giza site, I can honestly state…without the information gathered by my opposing side, including astronomers, I would never have realized what was hidden atop the Giza Plateau. Only from exhaustive investigation are we able to discover the truth, but most important are the precise and articulate measures recorded by Sir W. F. Petrie, the individual this web site is dedicated to…without them we would be lost forever.



The Royal cubit:

There are many theories relating to the Giza site and as many measures for the Royal cubit as there are theories…but which measure is correct?

Incorporating the short cubit, metric, English, Greek, or Roman system of measure is least advisable…it can lead the individual along a path of mathematical “coincidences”.

There is one known fact…the King and Queen’s chambers share a common measure of width and their width is equivalent to 10 times the length of the ancient Egyptian measure known as the Royal cubit…both chambers are 10 Royal cubits (Rc) in width.

To verify the builder’s measure of length, the Queen’s Chamber is 11 Royal cubits long, one Royal cubit longer than its width and the measure used to construct the monuments. The King’s Chamber is 20 Royal cubits long; this chamber is built having a length to width ratio equaling 2:1. These was the simplest means for the designer(s) to inform us that the Royal cubit and basic ratios for measure are to be used if attempting to uncover the story within.

Hawass was correct…Royal cubits and ratios only!

Petrie, along with most Egyptologists/archeologists, agreed that this is indeed the “standard” measure to be used at Giza and introducing other measures of the Royal cubit from later dynasties would create confusion.

Following the complete removal of sand from the base of the Great Pyramid, it was discovered that its full length was an astonishing 440 Royal cubits, equivalent to 252 yards or 230 meters, almost two and one half football fields in length.

Petrie measured and recorded the individual height for each course of stone to the top-most 203rd level, a point 264.6 Rc above the base (152 yards or 139 meters).

The slope of the sides has been calculated, indicating a mathematical reference to circular measure. The ratio of slope is 4/pi and pi is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. Using this measure the “calculated” height of the Great Pyramid would be 280.1 Rc.

Several smooth angular “casing” stones are set at the center of the north base; there are no other angular casing stones in situ. It is believed that smooth angular casing stones of white Tura limestone covered the four sides completely from base to apex (Ill. 1). It is also claimed that several centuries ago these angled casing stones were intentionally removed and apparently utilized in the construction of many holy mosques surrounding the countryside. It is my intention to investigate deeper into this report and confirm its validity. Until such time, we will assume the legend of the complete coating of angular stones being removed by the Egyptian people as…possible.



Illustration 1. The dimensions of the Great Pyramid and the location of three chambers within.





With all known external and internal measures in place, we can proceed with the investigation. However, if you lack knowledge in basic astronomy then it is advised that you refer to the simple graph below showing the number of Earth years or days for one complete orbital period for the four closest planets to the Sun.























From experimentation, it was discovered that a circle drawn from the corner base to the top-most center point of the structure (203rd course) is also tangential to a line drawn from the opposite corner base to the actual endpoint of the last level recorded by Petrie (Ill. 2 and 3).




Illustration 2. A circle of radius 343.9 Rc intersects with the line drawn from the base to the upper edge of the structure.

(enlarged view below)



Illustration 3. The enlarged view of the circle and line intersecting, the circle also passes through the center of the top course.

Note: The radius measure of the circle is now shown as the diameter value.




Courtesy of William A. Arnett


From illustration 2, we notice the radius measure of 343.9 Rc, therefore the diameter measure is 687.8 R (Ill. 3). This is the first indication of a possible connection between measures in length compared to measures in time (Earth days)…Mars orbits the Sun in 687 days…almost the same number!

If this is not coincidental and the measure provided by the designers being intentional then they would certainly included another planet for comparison.

Using the actual apex of the pyramid as the center and redrawing the 687 Rc circle, we witness a geometrically balanced “wedge” having both base corners intersected by the circle (Ill. 4.).



Illustration 4. The identical circle is drawn from the uppermost center point of the structure to the base corners.


Illustration 4 shows a circle having a diameter measure almost equal to the numerical value for one complete orbit of Mars around the Sun (686.98 days).




Courtesy of William A. Arnett


Now we simple duplicate the process by adding the value of measure for one Earth year, it equaling 365.26 days (Ill. 5 and 6).



Illustration 5. A circle (blue) having a diameter measure equal to the number of days in one Earth year (365.26 days) is drawn from the identical point as that of Mars.

(enlarged view below)




Illustration 6. The enlarged view shows the circle passing through the King’s Chamber

and making contact with the top of the last step signifying the end of the Grand Gallery.


The measure is perfect, and the circle also intersects with the sides of the structure at a level aligning with the peak of the King’s Chamber.

We may now begin to realize that the location of the King’s chamber may have been with intent from the initial planning of the structure; the measure from the apex to the floor guides us to the numerical value for the days to an Earth year.




Courtesy of William A. Arnett


Continuing with the same concept, an attempt was made to insert the measure for Venus, a planet requiring 224.7 Earth days to orbit the Sun. Although a circle having a “diameter” measure of this value fits the upper part of the monument, there are no known features within this part of the structure that coincide with the circle. However, a circle having a “radius” of 224.7 Rc results in a display of precise measure (Ill. 7).



Illustration 7. Using the “radius” measure of a circle, the orbital period for Venus is evident.

(enlarged view below)



Illustration 8. A display of stunning accuracy.

The circle representing the days to one Venus year passes along the floor of the Queen’s Chamber.


The floor and entrance to the Queen’s Chamber are lower than the horizontal passage and one question constantly being asked is… Why did the builders design a step in the passage leading toward the Queen’s Chamber? Perhaps we may now understand it being designed to guide us toward measuring the distance from this step to the apex of the pyramid.

The 224.7 Rc circle representing Venus intersects the lower part of the passage at the exact location of the step!

A second note of geometric evidence is the “Venus” circle intersecting the side of the structure at a level above the base equaling that of the ceiling in the King’s Chamber…unbelievable precision!




Courtesy of William A. Arnett


The last of the four inner planets is Mercury. Closest to the Sun, this speedy “see it today-gone tomorrow” object is visible at dusk for short intervals of time. Mercury orbits the Sun in 88 Earth days…more than four complete cycles in one Earth year.

Using the identical measuring procedure, as the other three planets, indicates no relevant physical characteristics within the structure to verify the distance representing one orbit of Mercury. This is repeated for twice the cycle of (2x88) = 176 Rc and again for three times the cycle of (3x88) = 264 Rc. It is the latter of the three measures that is most important (Ill.9).



Illustration 9. The actual height of the Great Pyramid is 264.5 Royal cubits…three complete orbits of Mercury equals 264 Earth days.


The total height of the completed structure is 264.5 Rc, the numerical equivalent of 264 days or three complete orbital cycles of Mercury. Again a physical aspect of the structure indicates the designer(s) intent. The circle passes directly through the location of the Grotto, another mysterious and puzzling feature of the Great Pyramid.

We have been introduced to the four closest planets orbiting the Sun. The designer(s) demonstrated their knowledge of planetary orbital periods using a simple yet unique measuring system. The distance from the apex to the corner base represents Mars, the distance to the floor of the King’s Chamber represent Earth, the Queen’s Chamber floor indicates Venus, leaving the base to represent Mercury.

The measures are accurate and true; the possibility of coincidence is reduced to “almost” zero, but the designer(s) knew we would question the numbers. These individuals were intellects…using advanced geometry they provided two more sets of measure to confirm their intent.




The designer(s) left the Royal cubit measure for us to use at the Giza site, it is the tool required for unlocking the codes within. They sealed the entrance to the Great Pyramid, ascending passage, and King’s Chamber in anticipation of a future generation to discovered the method of entry. The invaders would find complete emptiness, and then “hopefully” rationalize the reason for the design.

In a typical Egyptian mathematical teaching fashion, we are provided with the answers, it is for us to discover the questions.

This topic began with the two inner chambers and the establishing of the Royal cubit for measure. The upper chamber is 10x20 Rc compared to the 10x11 Rc for the lower chamber. Automatically the average individual will compare the floor area of each chamber to determine the physical size ratio. But we have been discussing orbital periods…the time required to travel the circumference of each planet’s path around the Sun. Therefore we must do likewise with the chambers by comparing the distance/perimeter of each.

The measures are (2x10+2x20) = 60 Rc and (2x10+2x11) = 42Rc, having a ratio equal to 60/42 = 10/7 = 1.429 (Ill. 10)



Illustration 10. The ratio of the chamber perimeters equals 10/7 or 1.429:1


Returning to the main structure and comparing orbital data, it is discovered that Venus becomes the important object of study.

Multiplying the orbital period of Venus (224.7) by the perimeter ratio of the chambers (10/7) results in a value equal to 321, the identical distance from the apex to the passage leading into the subterranean chamber (Ill. 11).


Illustration 11. The orbital value for Venus is multiplied by the perimeter ratio of the pyramid’s two chambers.

The circle touches the floor of the third and lower…subterranean chamber.


The second and most complicated means to confirm these measures is no less than a masterpiece of mathematical expression. All circles and their distances are show below, but only with the aid of the computer could their location be resolved. See if you are able to determine what interconnecting circle represents what planet, each is measured from a different location than previously illustrated (Ill. 12).



Illustration 12. The four planet orbital periods are demonstrated requiring computer assist to discover their location.




The Great Pyramid at Giza was built using the Royal cubit of measure and the two upper chambers are to be used as a means to standardize its length. From Topic 3 we learn that the external view of the complex directs us to the possibility that the designer(s) were fully aware of planetary orbits. Now, after venturing into the internal features of the greatest structure on site, we discover additional information confirming this theory. 

Egyptian hieroglyphs were considered to be no more than child’s writings until Jean-Francois Champollion deciphered the codes behind its design. A mixture of pictures and letters explaining detailed mythical events and legends of past, but only several remain that express the mathematical knowledge attained. The majority of scientific writings were confiscated from those who possessed such knowledge, only to have them intentionally destroyed by the new and uprising Christian revolutionaries…now the writings…the proof of knowledge attained by the ancient Egyptians…are gone forever.

The designer(s) of the Giza complex feared the same fate, the possibility that all written knowledge would eventually be lost. The most effective solution was to construct a library of knowledge that required equal knowledge to understand the reason for its design. Although we seek hidden treasures, it is the concealed intelligence the designer(s) left for us to discover; it is clearly evident throughout the site…but automatically overlooked. Those who do not understand shall dig, poke, and remove the stones only to become frustrated with their endeavors.

These people have had their day, it is for the future to take control and systematically measure each and every aspect of these monuments without adjusting a single stone. But most important…we must realize that closing the site to those who want to measure and record for future generations to study is a complete insult to the mentality of modern humankind. Until the day that freedom is granted…we will learn little or nothing of the full story.

One strong-willed individual, with the desire and ambition to learn from the ancient past, devoted most of his mature life to systematically measure and record his findings of the Giza Plateau. From the notes of a single man…a one of a kind…a Sir W. F. Petrie we have learned immensely.

Given time…we can only imagine what several more Petrie’ could accomplish.




The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, W. M. Flinders Petrie, 1883.


Discovering Ancient Egypt, R.F. MCKenty, 1997


The Pyramids of Egypt, I.E.S. Edwards, 1988 revised pbe.


“106” The Dawn of Man, C. Ross, 1999 pbe.


Larousse Astronomy, 1987, Philippe de la Cotardiere


Introduction to The Nine Planets,  William A. Arnett


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